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enzyme (lysozyme)

  Enzyme classes:
  EC 1: Oxidoreductases
  EC 2: Transferases
  EC 3: Hydrolases
  EC 4: Lyases
  EC 5: Isomerases
  EC 6: Ligases
  General information:
  Catalytic mechanism
  Enzyme kinetics
  Enzymes in industry

Industrial applications of enzymes

Enzymes as a highly specific catalysts have many industrial applications. Furthermore, because enzymes are proteins and usually do not survive at temperatures higher than 50-60°C it is safe to use them in food industry.

Enzymes in food industry

Almost all enzymes are disintegrated at high temperatures and then they completely safe for first steps of food processing. Furthermore many enzymes used in food processing are very similar to those from human body and therefore are completely safe as well. Many enzymes are used non-directly, i.e. some sources of food are already contains such enzymes and during appropriate steps can be activated.

Enzymes in brewing industry

Beer brewing is a very difficult process, which required from brewer a very high qualifications. Using of additional enzymes can simplify this process, which in fact reduce a bit quality of the final beer, but from other hand allow to produce beer easily in large quantities.
  • Amylase - group of enzymes belonging to EC 3.2.1 group. Amylase is used to split polysaccharides from malt during mash process. This enzyme is used in addition to those naturally present in malt.
  • Protease - group of hydrolases acting on peptide bonds, belongs to EC 3.4 group. These enzymes allow to remove protein remaining from yeasts, which make beer more clear and easily filtrated.

Enzymes for primary food processing

Some food can be prepared or predigested with enzymes. This can make it much more tasty, pleasant and more long-life.
  • Trypsin - is a serine protease (EC from digestive system. In organisms trypsin disintegrate proteins from food. Used for primary food processing for babies.
  • Papain - is a cystein protease (EC from fruit. Used for meat tendering.
  • Renin - is a aspartic acid protease (EC from stomach of young mammalian animals. Hydrolyse protein from milk in cheese production.
  • Glucose isomerase (EC. catalyses the reversible isomerisation of D-glucose to D-fructose. Used for syrups production.
  • Cellulase - group of enzymes from bacteria, fungi and protozoans (EC which can hydrolyse cellulose to beta-D-glucan. Used for cellulose processing in coffe, beans etc.

Biological detergents and cleaning

These detergents are based on the enzymatic activities which helps to remove many types of dirt from closes. Also used for cleaning of some sensitive equipment.
  • Proteases - group of hydrolases acting on peptide bonds, belongs to EC 3.4 group. Used for removing of protein contamination.
  • Lipase - group of esterases (EC 3.1) disintegrated lipids. Allow to remove fatty stains.

Enzymes in molecular biology

This is never ending story. Many of enzymes used in molecular biology directly in bacterial cells to synthesise necessary compounds. Bacterial and yeasts cells can be used for any protein and peptide biosynthesis. Some of these bacterial enzymes can be used in vitro to perform the same biological processes, from which are most important enzymes for DNA/RNA manipulation.
  • Polymerases - group of nucleotidetransferases (EC 2.7.7), is used to polymerise DNA or RNA chain against other DNA or RNA templates or matrices.
  • Restrictases - group of restrictases (EC 3.1.11 - EC 3.1.31), is used to cuts double-stranded DNA and RNA chains.
  • DNA ligases - ligases (EC is used for link together DNA strands in places of double strand breaks.
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